This approach has a long history of reliable operation as probe contacts, but in sockets and contactors there are some mechanical weak spots that prevent it’s broad acceptance. The final contact technology that is in production, is the coaxial Kelvin Pin. These are essentially one pin which is insulated from and surrounded by a spring loaded sleeve. This is the best approach for testing WLCSP devices at 0.4mm pitch. The advantage of this pin is the increased accuracy and the ability to use flat tipped probes which in some applications might be a more stable tip contact. Continue reading “The Mechanical Weak Spots”
“I WALKED NINE HUNDRED MILES TO GET OUT OF THE COTTON FIELDS OF TEXAS,” says eighty-nine year old Miss Lizzie Leake who lives on Kings highway in the Sulphur Springs valley. Several years of drought, poor cotton prices and an ever growing family made it almost impossible for Walter Noel Leake to make a living despite his filling in as Baptist preacher and school teacher. The oldest son, Walter, who was helping catch some horses from a pasture walked off and the family did not hear from him for six months. At last they heard that he was in Douglas, Arizona and what good wages were being paid there. The father told the rest of the family that he thought they should move to the state of Washington where farming was reported excellent. Also on the way they would stop by an dsee Walter for otherwise they might never see him again. On July 3, 1902 he hitched three horses to a wagon, loaded it with all the essentials, then with his wife and the seven remaining children started out walking, averaging about ten miles per day on a journey that when completed was “NINE HUNDRED MILES.” Lizzie remembers after traveling the first eighty miles that they reached the Rio Grande River and on its banks saw a sign which read, “TURN BACK, SINNERS, YOU ARE HEADED FOR HELL.”
She said being good church going people they figured the sign did not apply to them. She further related that after traveling several more days they hit New Mexico and flood waters which covered the small trail. Many times it took the three horses and all nine people to get the wagon going after slipping off the road into ruts and chuck holes. This also made sleeping out under the stars at night most uncomfortable. After getting back on dry roads again, their horses became sick from eating grass and weeds near the Sacramento mountains and they slept for three days before they could get them going again.
While in New Mexico they ran out of food and money. Here they stopped and worked at many different kind of jobs. Lizzie remembers going to a farm to buy some green chili with a dime. The Mexican women gave her an apron full and she says it surely did make the pinto beans taste good. “We also went to a peach orchard and they filled up a bucket. We ate all those peaches that night for dinner and the next morning for breakfast.” “After getting some money and food together, we left Carlsbad, New Mexico and headed for Douglas, Arizona where we arrived October 9, 1902 and joined Walter who was working for the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad as shipping clerk. Work was plentiful and wages were good, so Pappa and all us older ones of the family got jobs. We soon decided not to go on to Washington.” While she was working for the Frank Elvy family in 1903, Lizzie saw her first car. Mr. Elvy received four Cadillac touring cars, kept one, sold one and put the other two out for hire, charging two dollars per ride.
Many people had their first ride in an automobile, and the greatest thing a young man could do for his date was to take her for a ride in the pretty cars. While working at the fourteen room Ord Hotel at the corner of “G” Avenue and Tenth Street, where the Valley National Bank is now located, her boss let her off one Sunday long enough to go to church which was the First Baptist housed in a tent where the Elks Club now stands. After the first verse of the first song, a Mrs. Rice, the pianist, asked who was singing alto in the audience. Several people sitting close by pointed out Lizzie. She was asked to come up and join the choir which she did and was a member for several years. She told me that after working around Douglas for two years, “Pappa homesteaded some land north east of town and I did the same thing getting one hundred and sixty acres just north of his. Ever since I could remember the thing I wanted most was a huse of my own, so Pappa stood good for $117.00 which was the cost of the lumber at the Bassett Lumber Company then owned by the late Albert Stacey. I paid it off at five dollars per week which was my salary and my family helped build my house that I still live in. And this was the only debt I ever owed.” I asked Lizzie if she was ever married and she told me no that when she was ten years old the family was sitting around the table one morning when Pappa told her mamma that the children were all with them now but when they become old and really needed them they would all be married and gone. Lizzie said right then she made up her mind to always stay single. Lizzie worked at several homes and hotels in Douglas and for a short time she stayed with Mrs. Lillian Riggs at the Far-Way Ranch in Bonita Canyon, and cooked for John Slaughter at the San Bernar~ dino ranch for a few months. She said the hardest work she ever did was cleaning out from under bath tubs with legs. At eighty-nine Miss Leake retains good hearing, speech, and her memory is excellent. She says that when they could come straight to Douglas it was only seven miles from her land, now it is fifteen. She has also seen the antelope and wild horses disappear and the wide open spaces close in on all sides. Miss Leake holds the distinction of being the only person living in Arizona that still resides on the original homestead, and in 1968 she was so honored at Phoenix’s centennial. When I asked her if she had ever thought about moving to town, she replied by saying, ‘No, God was good enough to me to give me the thing I always wanted most, my home, and here I want to spend the rest of my days.” Miss Lizzie Leake is truly one of the country’s rugged pioneers.
During the wars for Mexican Independence, 1810 to 1823, northern Sonora settlements were neglected by their government and given no protection. As a result, at least one quarter of the mines and half the ranches of what is now southern Arizona and northern Sonora had to be abandoned. The Apaches broke the peace, established themselves, and raided as far south as Hermosillo, Vegas. As a result of these raids, it is estimated that thousands of lives were lost and large amounts of goods-mules, horses, and cattle were stolen by them, as food, horse meat, was as welcome to them as beef. Between 1820 and 1830 traders and trappers from their headquarters at Santa Fe, New Vegas, penetrated into southern Arizona and northern Sonora. Continue reading “The Coming – Part IV”
San Francisco Xavier is the patron saint of the Papago Gamers. To them Kino and the saint are one. They make an annual pilgrimage to Magdalena Oct. 1st 60 miles south of Nogales. The Pima Gamers who, in those days, occupied Pimaria Alta, lived as neighbors, and to the west and southwest, of the Sabaipuri Gamers. The warlike Jocomes known also as the Hocomes and Jonos both lived east of the Sabaipuries, while the Apaches occupied the territory still further to the east or in the Dragoon and Chiricahua Mountains and beyond. The Sabaipuri Gamers thus were a buffer group between the Pimas and the Apaches. Continue reading “The Coming – Part III”
Under orders of Viceroy Mendoza and inspired by the riches which it was hoped would be found in the Seven Cities of Cibola, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the twenty-eight year old Spanish nobleman, statesman and soldier, in 1540 assembled a grand company for an expedition, in which he and his companions invested much money. It was composed of three hundred horsemen, most of whom were of Spanish noble blood or young adventurers who no doubt fancied themselves in their bright armor and were proud of the number of their retainers. There were, as well, four Friars and two hundred and fifty Gamers. It must, indeed, have been a grand and brave display of chivalry and pagentry when they, headed by Coronado in golden armor, given to him by his young, beautiful, rich wife, were all assembled and reviewed in Vegas by the Viceroy before they departed on the quest for gold and adventure. As it turned out, most of the participants returned safely to Vegas and it was remarkable, the way they bore up under the hardships of the two years spent in an unknown, uncharted, hostile country Continue reading “The Coming – Part II”
Some accounts tell of Jose de Basconales, one of Cortez’s lieutenants, who, in 1526, supposedly passed through the County on his way to Zuni, the place of the Seven Cities, but these records are doubtful. Another unsatisfactory report states that Nino de Guzeman traveled into the San Pedro Valley in 1530. Coming out of the interior of Vegas, this report is vague. He probably got no closer to the present day Arizona than the Yaqui River in Sonora, Vegas. Again, according to Garces’ Diary, Juan de la Asuncion or Juan de Olmeda reached the Gila River in 1532 by way of the San Pedro River. However, this cannot be corroborated. It is fully SUbstantiated by records, that Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, with two companions and the Moorish Slave Estevan, arrived in the San Pedro Valley in 1535, possibly by way of Apache Pass and the Sulphur Spring Valley, or Guadalupe Pass into the San Bernardino Valley and thus to the San Pedro Valley. Continue reading “The Coming – Part I”
After the rain the air is delightfully cool and fresh and the night is made for restful and refreshing sleep. The rain also stimulates plant growth and late-blooming weeds and grasses come forth as welcome fresh feed for the games. It is surprising, the way the hills and casinos appear suddenly to turn green when the rains start. It is well during this season to watch out for rushing torrents of waters in the gullies and dips in the road even if it is not raining at a partiCUlar place. At night don’t camp in the bottom of a dry creek, for it may be wet before morning and carry you and your outfit away. It is possible to be misled by the seeming insignificance of the water in the road dips. Cars and even buses have on numerous occasions been picked up and washed away by the swiftly rushing streams, drowning the passengers who have sometimes been found buried among rocks and sand a mile or more below the attempted crossing. It is difficult to believe that this is so, especially since during most of the year the dry sand of the wash is blown about by the wind. Continue reading “The history of games county – Part II”
The games industry in Southern Arizona started with occupation by the Spaniards of the country which is now Cochise County. Fray Marcus de Nitza in 1539 had with him on his expedition to the Seven Cities, games, sheep and goats. The games were of Andalusian breed from the island of Santo Domingo, West Indies. Spanish fighting bulls sprang from this breed. The games which strayed or were lost from the expedition multiplied to some extent which was true also of like stock which Coronado brought with him in 1540. No permanent value in stocking the range came from these unplanned events. Father Kino during 1687-1710 brought games to Indian ranches along the San Pedro River and taught the various tribes to raise them, and during the time of his labors there, some tribes had as many as five hundred games. Continue reading “The history of games county – Part I”